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The fruit can grow up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 15 centimetres
(6 in) in diameter,
and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb).
Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to
brown and its flesh pale-yellow to red, depending on species.
The hard outer husk is covered with sharp, prickly thorns,
while the edible custard-like
flesh within emits the strong, distinctive odour, which is regarded as
either fragrant or overpowering and offensive. The taste of the flesh has
been described as nutty and sweet.
Durian fruit contains a high amount of sugar,
and the serotoninergic amino acid tryptophan,
and is a good source of carbohydrates,
It is recommended as a good source of raw fats by several raw
while others classify it as a high-glycemic
or high-fat food, recommending to minimise its consumption.
In Malaysia, a decoction
of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic.
The leaf juice is applied on the head of a fever patient.The most complete description of the medicinal use of the durian as
remedies for fevers is a Malay prescription, collected by Burkill and
Haniff in 1930. It instructs the reader to boil the roots of Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis with the roots of Durio zibethinus, Nephelium
longan, Nephelium mutabile and Artocarpus
integrifolia, and drink the decoction or use it as a poultice.
is huge, seldom less than about 25 cm in diameter. The jackfruit is
something of an acquired taste, but it is very popular in many parts of
the world. An unopened ripe fruit can have a unpleasant smell, like
The lightbrown to black seeds with white innards are indeed about the size
of dates. In the United
States and Europe,
the fruit is available in shops that sell exotic products, usually sold
canned with a sugar syrup or frozen. It is also obtained fresh from Asian
food markets. Sweet jackfruit chips are also often available.
The fruit comes in three types, all with leathery, slightly leafy skin:
The fruit can weigh from 150-600 grams and the flesh, which is eaten
raw, is mildly sweet and low in calories.
Eating the fruit is sometimes likened to that of the kiwifruit
due to a prevalence of sesame
seed-sized black crunchy seeds found in the flesh of both fruits which
make for a similar texture upon consumption. The fruit may be converted
or wine; the flowers
can be eaten or steeped as tea.
Although the tiny pitaya seeds are eaten with the flesh, the seeds are
dragon fruit (thanh long)
- The red flesh variety is rich in antioxidants.
- The pitaya fruit is rich in vitamins.
- The pitaya fruit helps the digestive process due to its fiber.
- The pitaya fruit helps prevent colon cancer and diabetes.
- The pitaya fruit helps to neutralize toxic substances such as heavy
metal, reduce cholesterol levels and high blood pressure.
- Consumed regularly the pitaya fruit can help against asthma and
Dragonfruit is rich in fiber, Vitamin C and minerals. The typical
nutritional value per 100g of dragonfruit is as follows:
Dragonfruit is also rich in phytoalbumins which are highly valued for
their antioxidant properties. Antioxidants prevent the formation of
cancer-causing free radicals. In Taiwan, diabetics use the fruit as a food
substitute for rice and as a source of dietary
The nutrition per 100 grams of lychee fruit:
carbohydrates: 16.53 g
lipids (fat): .44 g
fiber: 1.3 g
sugars: 15.23 g
calcium: 5 mg
magnesium: 10 mg
potassium: 171 mg
phosphorus: 31 mg
vitamin c: 71.5 mg
The fruit is a drupe,
3–4 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. The outside is covered by a red,
that is inedible but easily removed. The inside consists of a layer of
sweet, translucent white flesh, rich in vitamin
C, with a texture somewhat similar to that of a grape.
The edible flesh consists of a highly developed aril
enveloping the seed. The center contains a single glossy brown nut-like
seed, 2 cm
long and 1–1.5 cm in diameter. The seed, similar to a buckeye
seed, is slightly poisonous
and should not be eaten. Lychees are commonly sold fresh in Chinese
and Asian markets, and in recent years, also widely in supermarkets
worldwide. The red rind turns dark brown when the fruit is refrigerated,
but the taste is not affected. It is also sold canned year-round. The
fruit can be dried with the rind intact, at which point the flesh shrinks
and darkens, somewhat resembling a human earlobe in texture.
The longan ("dragon eyes") is so named because of the
fruit's resemblance to an eyeball when it is shelled (the black seed shows
through the translucent flesh like a pupil/iris).
is edible, and is often used in East
foods. They are round with a thin, brown-coloured inedible shell. The
flesh of the fruit, which surrounds a big, black seed, is translucent
white, soft, and juicy.
Longans and lychees
bear fruit at around the same time of the year. Dried longan (Chinese:
yuánròu; literally "round
meat") are often used in Chinese
cuisine, Chinese food
therapy and herbal
medicine and Chinese sweet desert soups. In contrast with the fresh
fruit, the flesh of dried longans is dark brown to almost black.
The fruit is a round to oval drupe
3-6 cm (rarely to 8 cm) long and 3-4 cm broad, borne in a loose pendant
cluster of 10-20 together. The leathery skin is reddish (rarely orange or
yellow), and covered with fleshy pliable spines, hence the name rambutan,
derived from the Malay
word rambut which means hairs. The fruit flesh is translucent,
whitish or very pale pink, with a sweet, mildly acidic flavour.
The single seed is glossy brown, 2-3 cm long, with a white basal scar;
it is poisonous and should not be eaten with the fruit flesh.
. The mango fruit is a drupe;
when mature, it hangs from the tree on long stems. They are variable in
size, from 10-25 cm long and 7-12 cm diameter, and may weigh up
to 2.5 kg. The ripe fruit is variably colored yellow, orange and red,
reddest on the side facing the sun and yellow where shaded; green usually
indicates that the fruit is not yet ripe, but this depends on the cultivar.
The fruit flesh of a ripe mango contains about 15% sugar,
up to 1% protein,
and significant amounts of vitamins
It is very sweet, with a unique taste. The texture of the flesh varies
markedly between different cultivars; some have quite a soft and pulpy
texture similar to an over-ripe plum,
while others have a firmer flesh much like that of a cantaloupe
and in some cultivars the flesh can contain fibrous material.
The edible endocarp
of the mangosteen is botanically defined as an aril
with the same shape and size as a tangerine
4-6 cm in diameter, but is white. The circle of wedge-shaped arils
contains 4-8 segments, the larger ones harboring apomictic
seeds that are unpalatable unless roasted. Since 2004, mangosteen has been
included among an emerging category of novel functional
foods sometimes called "superfruits"
presumed to have a combination of 1) appealing subjective characteristics,
such as taste, fragrance and visual qualities, 2) nutrient
richness, 3) antioxidant
strength and 4) potential impact for lowering risk against human diseases.
When analyzed specifically for its edible aril, however, mangosteen meets
only the first criterion above, as its overall nutrient profile is absent
of important content.
The fruit is edible, round to pear-shaped,
from 3-10 cm in diameter (to 12 cm in some selected cultivars).
It has a thin delicate rind, pale green to yellow at maturity in some
species, pink to red in others, a creamy white or orange-salmon flesh with
many small hard seeds, and a strong, characteristic aroma. It is rich in
vitamins A, B, and C (a guava fruit contains more vitamin C than a typical
citrus fruit – the rind contains over five times more vitamin C than an
orange). It also contains high amounts of calcium – which is unusual in
a fruit. Guava leaves are used for medicinal purposes, as a remedy for diarrhea,
and for their supposed antimicrobial properties. The same anti-diarrheal
substances which are useful in folk medicine may also cause constipation
in the case of consumption of large amounts of guava fruits. In Cuba
their leaves are also used in barbecues providing a nice smoked flavor and
scent to the meat. In recent studies, Guava is believed to have sugar
lowering properties to help diabetics lower their sugar count. While
testing is not fully conclusive, results have been promising as a natural
means to help diabetics combat high sugar
is usually round or oval, slightly pine cone-like, 6-10 cm diameter and
weighing 100-230 g, with a scaly or lumpy skin. The fruit flesh is edible,
white to light yellow, and resembles and tastes like custard.
The seeds are
scattered through the fruit flesh; they are blackish-brown, 12-18 mm long,
and hard and shiny.
It is used by some societies in India to prepare a hair tonic. The
seeds are also ground and applied to rid the hair of lice.
(mãng cầu xiêm)
Comparisons of its flavor range from strawberry and pineapple mixed
together to sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying
creamy roundness of flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana. The fruit is
somewhat difficult to eat, as the white interior pulp is studded with many
large seeds, and pockets of soft flesh are bounded by fibrous membranes.
The soursop is therefore usually juiced rather than eaten directly.
Nutritionally, the fruit is high in carbohydrates,
The fruit also contains significant amounts of vitamin
B1, and vitamin
B2. The fruit, seeds, and leaves have a number of herbal medicinal
uses among indigenous peoples of regions where the plant is common. The
tea, fruit, and juice are used medicinally to treat illness ranging from
stomach ailments to worms.
is a bell-shaped edible berry,
with colors ranging from white, pale green, green, red, purple, crimson,
to deep purple or even black, 4-6 cm long in wild plants.
In the Pacific Islands, this fruit is known as Mountain Apple. In the
Fiji Islands it is common in the outskirts of forests. Called "Kavika"
in Fiji, it is well-documented as a medicinal plant (particularly the bark
of the Kavika tree).
Individuals with kidney
trouble should avoid consuming the fruit, due to the presence of oxalic
acid. Juice made from carambola can be even more dangerous due to its
concentration of the acid. Those with high cholesterol
or are diabetic
should also avoid this fruit, due to its high amount of sugar.
Its fruit, the carambola, more popularly known as star fruit,
but also coromandel gooseberry or kamranga, is a golden-yellow
to green berry.
When cut across it shows a 5-pointed (sometimes 6-pointed or 7-pointed)
star shape, hence the name, "star fruit." Star fruits are
crunchy, and have a slightly tart, acidic, sweet taste, reminiscent of
pears, apples, and sometimes grapes. The fruits are a good source of vitamin
C. Its seeds
are small and brown. They consist of a tough outer skin and a tangy white
There are two varieties of star fruit - acidulate and sweet. The tart
varieties can often be identified by their narrowly spaced ribs. The sweet
varieties usually have thick fleshy ribs.
The fruit starts out green, and goes to yellow as it ripens, though it
can be eaten in both stages.
The watermelon fruit, loosely considered a type of melon
(although not in the genus Cucumis),
has a smooth exterior rind (green and yellow) and a juicy, sweet, usually
red or yellow, but sometimes orange, interior flesh. The flesh consists of
highly developed placental tissue within the fruit. A one-cup serving of
watermelon will provide around 48 calories.
Watermelon is an excellent source of vitamin
C and vitamin
A, with one serving containing 14.59 mg of vitamin C and 556.32 IU of
vitamin A. Watermelon also provides significant amounts of vitamin
B6 and vitamin
B1, as well as the minerals potassium
Pink watermelon is also a source of the potent carotenoid
Watermelon rinds are also edible, and sometimes used as a vegetable.
In China, they are stir-fried,
more often pickled.
When stir-fried, the de-skinned and de-fruited rind is cooked with olive
sugar and rum.
are rich in fat
and are widely eaten as a snack,
added to other dishes, or used as an oilseed.
Specialized varieties are grown which have little watery flesh but
concentrate their energy into seed production.
The skin is yellow to brown and often spotted, with a smooth and waxy
texture. When peeled away, it reveals separate slices of sweet translucent
meat, which contains bitter seeds that are not eaten.
is bright red, 1.5-2 cm diameter, containing 2-3 hard seeds.
It is juicy, often as much sour as sweet in flavor, and very high in vitamin
C and other nutrients.
Although resembling a cherry, it is unrelated to the true cherry
The fruit is edible and widely consumed in the species' native area,
and is cultivated elsewhere for its high vitamin C content.
is a large globose berry,
4-8 cm in diameter, very much resembling a smooth-skinned potato and
containing 2-10 seeds.
Inside, its flesh ranges from a pale yellow to an earthy brown color with
a grainy texture akin to that of a well-ripened pear.
The flavour is exceptionally sweet and quite delicious. The seeds are
black and resemble beans, with a hook at one end that can catch in the
throat if swallowed.
The pulp colour ranges between clear pale yellow to pink to red,
and tastes like a sweet, mild grapefruit.
It is the largest citrus fruit, growing as large as 30 cm in diameter and
weighing as much as 10 kg; the peel is thick, and is sometimes used to
is a hybrid between the pomelo and the orange. In some markets,
grapefruits or pomelo/grapefruit crosses will also be sold as pomelo
or pummelo. The tangelo
is a hybrid between the pomelo and the tangerine.
It has a thicker skin than a tangerine and is less sweet. The peel of the
pomelo is also used in Chinese cooking or candied. In general, citrus peel
is often used in southern Chinese cuisine for flavouring, especially in sweet
||Spondias cytherea; see Spondias
is a drupe
similar to a small mango
(in the related genus Mangifera), 4-10 cm long, ripening yellow or
About 10 species of Spondias bear edible fruits and have been
domesticated for fruit production. The fruit has a single seed.
apple (vú sữa)
It has round, purple-skinned fruit
that is often green around the calyx, with a star pattern in the pulp.
Sometimes there is a greenish-white variety of the fruit. The skin is rich
in latex, and both it and the rind are not edible. The flattened seeds
are light brown and hard. It bears fruit year around after it reaches
about seven years of age. The fruits are delicious as a fresh dessert
fruit; it is sweet and best served chilled. The flattened seeds are light
brown and hard. Infusions of the leaves have been used against diabetes
and articular rheumatism.
The bark is considered a tonic and stimulant, and a bark decoction is used
as an antitussive. The fruit also exist in two colors, dark purple and
greenish brown. The purple fruit has a more dense skin and texture while
the greenish brown fruit has a thin skin and a more liquid pulp.
Commercially, there are generally two types of persimmon fruit; astringent
and non-astringent. Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of
and are unpalatable if eaten before ripening. The astringency of tannins
is removed by ripening by exposure to light over several days, or
artificially with chemicals. This bletting
process is sometimes jumpstarted by exposing the fruit to cold or frost
which hastens cellular wall breakdown. These astringent persimmons can
also be prepared for commercial purposes by drying. Non-astringent
persimmons are not actually free of tannins as the term suggests, but
rather are far less astringent before ripening, and lose more of their
tannic quality sooner. Non-astringent persimmons may be consumed when
still very firm to very very soft.
- In traditional
Chinese medicine the fruit regulates ch'i
- The raw fruit is used to treat constipation, hemorrhoids, and to
stop bleeding. As such, it is not a good idea to consume too many
persimmons at once- they can induce diarrhea.
- The cooked fruit is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery
The fruit's taste is vaguely similar to pineapple,
although much milder, creamier, and more fragrant, with a texture of
slightly over-ripened cantaloupe.
The primary use of the papaya is as an edible fruit. The ripe fruit is
usually eaten raw, without the skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit of
papaya can be eaten cooked, usually in curries, salads and stews. The
black seeds are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes
ground up and used as a substitute for black
pepper. In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed
and eaten like spinach.
Women in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other parts of the world have
long used papaya as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion.teratogenic
and will not cause miscarriage in small, ripe amounts. Phytochemicals
in papaya may suppress the effects of progesterone.
Medical research in animals has confirmed the
contraceptive and abortifacient capability of papaya, and also found that
papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys,
possibly in adult male humans as well. Unripe papaya is especially
effective in large amounts or high doses. Papaya is not
hand (phật thủ)
The fruit itself is a type of citron and is often described as lemon-like.
The fruit is segmented into finger-like sections. It has a thick peel and
a small amount of acidic flesh and is seedless and juiceless. It is very
fragrant and is used predominantly by the Chinese
for perfuming rooms and personal items, such as clothing.
The peel of the fruit can be candied. In Western cooking, it is often
used for its zest. The inner white pith is not bitter as is usually the
case with citrus, so the fingers may be cut off and then longitudinally
sliced, peel pith and all, and used in salads or scattered over cooked
foods such as fish.
apple (gioi in the North, mận Đà
Lạt in the South)
There are several varieties, including the one most common in Thailand
bearing a pale green fruit, and Malaysian varieties with red skin. It is
often some shade of dull yellow. The skin is thin and waxy, and the hollow
core contains a small amount of inedible fluff. The flesh is a bit softer
than that of an apple.
It tastes like a cross between apple and watermelon,
with a very mild rose scent and a slightly bitter aftertaste.