Food Of Vietnam FOODOFVIETNAM.COM
Viet Nam Towns Little Saigon
In North America
The end of the war, an
influx of Vietnamese refugees headed to Santa Ana (CA), Bay Area (CA) and other
cities in U.S. and formed pockets of concentrated Vietnamese population called
Viet Nam Towns (Little Saigon), and some of these refugees opened restaurants to make ends meet.
Now, they are the second largest Southeast-Asian group, after Chinese.
Little Saigon - Vietnam Towns in U. S.
Little Saigon (Orange County, CA)
The well-established and largest Little Saigons are located in Orange County, California, Houston, Texas, and San Jose, California, although somewhat smaller Vietnamese American enclaves have cropped up, including the comparatively nascent Vietnamese commercial districts in San Francisco, San Diego, and Sacramento, California as well as in Orlando, Florida. Additionally, Vietnamese Americans of Chinese lineage have also established businesses and bringing distinctively Vietnamese elements to most Chinatowns, essentially blurring the line between a "Chinatown" and a "Little Saigon"; some examples would include the Chinatowns of Las Vegas, Boston, Massachusetts , Houston, Texas (Bellaire Chinatown)or Honolulu, Hawaii.
n 1984, the major Chinese American supermarket chain 99 Ranch Market (initially called 99 Price Market) had its first start in Little Saigon of California. However, unable to compete with many of the Vietnamese markets in the area, the flagship store has since closed and been replaced by another supermarket.
Little Saigon San Gabriel Valley (LA, California)
Due to the large influx and presence of relatively poor ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam in the 1980s (which also coincided with the arrival of immigrant elite from Taiwan and Hong Kong), the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles has another important concentration of Vietnamese in Southern California. While not generally referred to as "Little Saigon", the stretch of Garvey Avenue in the working-class barrios of Rosemead, California, South El Monte, California, and El Monte, California have a relatively heavy but scattered collection of businesses owned mainly by majority ethnic Chinese Vietnamese with a growing number of ethnic Vietnamese residents and business owners as well. Many of these businesses are housed in tiny strip malls whereas others occupy freestanding, aging buildings. These Vietnamese businesses are very gradually replacing businesses owned by Hispanics.
Little Saigon San Jose
Comprising about 9% of the population, San Jose's Vietnamese community is almost comparable to the one in Orange County. San Jose has by far more Vietnamese residents than any other United States city. Vietnamese language radio programs from Orange County are also rebroadcasted in the region. The San Jose Mercury News had a Vietnamese-language edition, along with other Vietnamese-owned publications. Although now it has been discontinued, there are many other Vietnamese publications that provide the ethnic literature enjoyed by the Vietnamese community. Several shopping malls on Tully Road cater to Vietnamese tastes, such as the incredibly popular Grand Century Mall. The popular Lee's Sandwiches (a Vietnamese banh mi sandwich chain eatery) as well as the semi-authentic Vietnamese pho chain Pho Hoa Restaurant had their first locations here. The Vietnamese community in San Jose, however, is more integrated into the local community, and is generally not as high-profile as other places; as a result, there is no officially-designated area named "Little Saigon".
Little Saigon Sacramento
With a large and growing Vietnamese American population, Stockton Boulevard in Sacramento has an informal "Little Saigon". Although settlement of Vietnamese refugees began during the 1980s, large numbers of Vietnamese have moved from the San Jose area to the Sacramento area since the late 1990s and 2000s (especially after the dot-com bust in Silicon Valley). The large Asian supermarket Shun Fat Supermarket (a small Southern California-based chain owned by a Chinese Vietnamese American) has opened in 2000 to cater to the local community and anchors Pacific Plaza. One of the First Vietnamese-Chinese owned supermarkets was Vinh Phat Supermarket. There are nearby Vietnamese shopping centers planned for development, including Little Saigon Plaza (to be anchored by a supermarket) that is to be developed by prominent San Jose-based Vietnamese American developers. Other current shopping centers sport names such as Little Vietnam and Pacific Rim Plaza.
Little Saigon San Francisco
San Francisco has now officially designated a Little Saigon on Larkin Street in the Tenderloin district. Long being a major Vietnamese community (unlike San Jose with its larger ethnic Vietnamese population, the ethnic Chinese from Vietnam are especially represented in San Francisco as a result of self-imposed segregation from ethnic Vietnamese), and attracting Vietnamese from San Jose, a number of community activists have supported making this Tenderloin neighborhood into a Little Saigon. Soon, there will be an official entrance constructed, much in the same way as the Japantown and Chinatown in San Francisco. Read more from the San Francisco Chronicle here.
Little Saigon Oakland
Many of Oakland's Vietnamese businesses are concentrated along International Boulevard and East 12th Street in the San Antonio district. The Oakland suburb of San Pablo has a pan-Asian shopping center called San Pablo Marketplace, developed by Orange County-based developer Frank Jao.
Little Saigon San Diego
When the "first wave" of Vietnamese immigrants started to arrive in the late 1970's/early 1980's, many settled in the communities adjacent to San Diego State University, such as City Heights and Talmadge, better known as East San Diego. As families and individuals became more affluent however, many relocated to other communities in the city: Linda Vista, Clairemont, Serra Mesa, etc. (Central San Diego) and what was then brand-new tract communities such as Mira Mesa, Rancho Penasquitos , Rancho Bernardo, etc.)
With a population of about 35,000 people (U.S. Census Bureau), the San Diego metropolitan area ranks as one of the largest Vietnamese communities in the United States. Because of the Vietnamese population's unique migration patterns in the city, it does not have a huge concentration of Vietnamese businesses in a particular area like other metropolitan areas (e.g., San Jose, Houston, etc.) Still, there are 3 notable Vietnamese business disticts in the San Diego region: Mira Mesa Blvd. (North San Diego), El Cajon Blvd. (East San Diego), and Convoy Street/Linda Vista Road (Central San Diego).
Little Saigon Colorado
Following the development of the Far East Center shopping complex, a growing Vietnamese commercial district is emerging on Federal Boulevard between Evans and Alameda Avenues in Denver, Colorado, with already choices of Vietnamese cuisine eateries and various businesses. This particular area has already been promoted as evidence of the city's cultural diversity.
Little Saigon Florida
A thriving Vietnamese quarter called "Little Vietnam" exists in the Colonialtown district of Orlando, Florida. The neighborhood has become a landmark in the city of Orlando and consist of a countless, and always growing, number of restaurants, groceries, and Vietnamese professional offices that serve the local Vietnamese community with everything from taxes to medical and dental care. Stores supply Asian pop-culture to the community in the form of karaoke bars, Boba tea shops, Vietnamese video and music shops, and stores featuring candies and collecteables from across Asia. The heart of the district is the intersection of East Colonial Drive/HWY50 and Mills Ave, also known as the "Vi-Mi" district.
The Orlando Vietnamese community has its roots in war refugees seeking a new life in America after the fall of Saigon. Notable pro-democracy activists, such as Thuong Nguyen Foshee, who was just recently released from prison in Vietnam, call Orlando their home.
The Vietnamese Community in Orlando, along with institutions like Long Van Temple and St. Philip Phan Van Minh Church, and groups such as The Vietnamese Association of Central Florida, strive to maintain their heritage as well as share their culture with the rest of Orlando. Annual events, such as the numerous Tet New Year Celebrations at the Central Florida Fairgrounds and across the city, help spread Vietnamese culture and promote diversity throughout Orlando.
Little Saigon Georgia
There are many Vietnamese businesses located in the mixed-Asian – that is, co-existing with ethnic Korean and Chinese businesses – commercial and cultural strip of Buford Highway in Doraville and Chamblee, which are working-class suburbs of Atlanta. Although a fair number of post-war Vietnamese refugees settled in Atlanta earlier, many Vietnamese Americans from California and other parts of the United States have been relocating into the Atlanta area and making a fairly large presence since the 1990s. Many of the "Vietnamese" commercial enterprises along Buford Highway are dominated by ethnic Chinese Vietnamese.
Little Saigon Illinois
Argyle Street in the city of Chicago contains a Little Saigon district, and it has become the hub of vibrant Vietnamese culture in the city. It is referred to by Chicagoans as the "New Chinatown."
Little Saigon Louisiana
Louisiana is home to many Vietnamese, many of whom especially engaged in traditional fishing. New Orleans has a small "Little Saigon" in the eastern part of the city.
There is a Vietnamese business section in Baton Rouge, located near the 12000 block of Florida Blvd (Hwy 190), which consists of restaurants, grocery stores, and other various businesses.
Little Saigon Massachusetts
Dorchester, Massachusetts, located right outside of Boston, is home to a major Vietnamese business center in the Northeast. It serves some 35,000 Vietnam-born Americans in the Boston-Worcester area as well as those in surroundings states such as Connecticut and Rhode Island.
Little Saigon Mississippi
A small "Little Saigon" can be found on Oak Street in Biloxi.
Little Saigon Missouri
Kansas City is home to more than 5,000 Vietnamese immigrants. Four small "Little Saigons" contain various businesses, including pho restaurants, nail salons, hair salons, video gift stores, cell phone stores, pool halls and jewelry stores. One of the "Little Saigons" can be found on Campbell St. There is a large supermarket on Cherry St. called "Kim Longs Asian Market & Restaurant" which now has a food court in the front of the store.
St. Louis also has a large Vietnamese refugee population. The majority of restaurants and stores are in "South City" on or near Grand Ave.
Little Saigon Michigan
While not titled as a "Little Saigon", the suburban community of Madison Heights in the Detroit area has become a center of Vietnamese commerce. Located on John R Road and on Dequindre Road, several Vietnamese markets, phở noodle soup restaurants, movie/music stores, several nail supply stores, herbal store and beauty salons have cropped up along two streets.
Besides Madison Heights, the Grand Rapids/Holland area has a small Vietnamese town.
Little Saigon New Mexico
A small "Little Saigon" community thrives in Southeast Albuquerque, New Mexico. Located on and around Central Avenue, the community consists of various Vietnamese restaurants and markets.
Little Saigon Oklahoma
Like Seattle, Oklahoma City has a significant Vietnamese American business district in a gentrified area in the center part of the city. Thousands of Vietnamese refugees were relocated to Oklahoma City during the 1980s and have established businesses in much of the old Uptown NW 23rd and Classen Blvd. business districts. While the area is officially known as the Asian District because of the abundant Asian diversity of the area, much of the "Little Saigon" portion centres on Military Dr. and along NW 23rd St. between Classen Blvd. and N. Shartel Ave. Little Saigon features numerous Pho cafés and Asian supermarkets. There are even a few hopping nightclubs and videobars joining the growing list of Chinese, Thai, Filipino, and Korean establishments that make up the remainder of the Asia District.
Oklahoma City's "Little Saigon" district was also featured in National Geographic's March 2003 issue's ZipUSA series titled "73106: Lemongrass on the Prairie"
Little Saigon Oregon
There are 10,641 Vietnamese Americans live in the Portland area. Many Vietnamese businesses in Portland can be found on NE Sandy Boulevard, SE Powell Boulevard, and NE 82nd Avenue. But there are some Vietnamese business around the Portland area such as Beaverton, Hillsboro, Aloha, and Tigard.
Little Saigon Pennsylvania
South Philadelphia near the Italian Market has a large Vietnamese American population. Many Vietnamese businesses tucked in strip malls have emerged on Washington Avenue to service the local immigrant population. The Vietnamese sandwich banh mi is gaining much attention in Philadelphia and is now competing with the Philly Cheesesteak.
As of 2005, Vietnamese are projected to become the largest nationality in South Philadelphia. Philadelphia is in the top ten cities with Vietnamese populations and Vietnamese immigration destinations. Philadelphia even has a higher percentage and numerical population of Vietnamese than New York City, one of few Asian backgrounds that shy from New York.
Little Saigon Texas
A major Little Saigon can also be found in Houston, a strip along Bellaire Boulevard west of the city of Bellaire. The redevelopment of Midtown Houston from run-down to upscale has increased property values and property taxes, thus forcing the Vietnamese Americans out of their current neighborhood into other areas.
Little Saigon Virginia
The Washington, D.C. suburb of Seven Corners in Fairfax County, Virginia is home to the largest Vietnamese American population and cultural center on the eastern seaboard. While there is no full-fledged "Little Saigon" to speak of, the most prominent hub for local-area Vietnamese is the massive and highly-elaborate shopping mall called the Eden Center, complete with a garden and an arch to signifying its entrance.
Little Saigon Washington
Seattle, Washington has a significant, prosperous Vietnamese American business district centered at 12th Avenue and Jackson Street, immediately east of the city's considerably older Chinatown. This area has not been officially designated a "Little Saigon", although a few street signs with this name have been erected. Rather, the area – along with the Chinatown – has retained the longstanding name International District (now officially Chinatown/International District, but often just "The I.D."), dating back about a century. The predominantly Chinese and predominantly Vietnamese areas are separated from one another by Interstate 5, but there is easy pedestrian and car access between the two.
VIETNAMESE POPULATION IN U.S. METROPOLITAN AREAS
U.S. CENSUS 2000 (1990 Figures in Parentheses)
Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
Little Saigon, c̣n được gọi là Tiểu Sài G̣n hay Sài G̣n Nhỏ, là tên thường được dùng cho những khu vực có nhiều người Việt sinh sống ngoài Việt Nam, đặc biệt là tại Hoa Kỳ và Úc. Cụ thể, Little Saigon thường chỉ đến khu vực trong hai thành phố Westminster và Garden Grove và các thành phố lân cận tại Quận Cam, California, nơi được mệnh danh là "thủ đô người Việt tỵ nạn".Những khu Little Saigon được h́nh thành sau Chiến tranh Việt Nam khi làn sóng tị nạn đang diễn ra. Ngày nay, những khu vực Little Saigon lớn nhất được t́m thấy tại Quận Cam, San Jose, California và Houston, Texas.
Tại Hoa Kỳ
Tại Quận Cam
Trước kia Westminster là một thành phố ngoại ô của người da trắng với nhiều đất đai trồng trọt, nhưng trong thập niên 1970 đă bị xuống dốc. Những người Việt tị nạn đầu tiên đến từ Camp Pendleton cách đó 50 dặm về hướng nam. Từ năm 1978, trung tâm của khu Little Saigon là Đại lộ Bolsa, nơi những cơ sở thương mại người Việt đầu tiên được lập ra. Cùng năm đó, tờ Nhật báo Người Việt đă được phát hành tại thành phố Garden Grove. Những người tị nạn người Việt sau này cũng đến đó để lập nghiệp, mua lại các cơ sở thương mại của người da trắng và lập nên một số khu phố thương mại cho người Việt. Về sau cộng đồng người Việt tràn ra những thành phố lân cận như Garden Grove, Stanton, Fountain Valley, Anaheim và Santa Ana.Vào ngày 17 tháng 6 năm 1988, Thống đốc California George Deukmejian đă tới Westminster và chính thức đặt danh xưng “Little Saigon” cho khu vục giáp giới với các đại lộ Westminster Boulevard, Bolsa Avenue, Magnolia Street, và Euclid Street. Cùng năm đó, các bảng hiệu được chính thức thiếp lập trên xa lộ Garden Grove (Freeway 22) để chỉ đường đến Little Saigon.
Bố trí và các dịch vụ
Little Saigon tại Quận Cam là một cộng đồng rộng lớn, có nhiều khu thương xá của người Việt và người Hoa. Nó nằm phía tây của Disneyland giữa Xa lộ California 22 và và Xa lộ Liên bang 405. Tuy nhiên, trung tâm của khu vực này là trên đường Bolsa (có khu Phước Lộc Thọ) xuyên qua thành phố Westminster và được chính thức gọi là Little Saigon bởi hội đồng thành phố Westminster cuối thập niên 1980. Tại đây chẳng những các khu thương mại, c̣n có nhà hàng bán các món ăn Việt Nam như phở, bánh ḿ, bánh cuốn, và siêu thị bán những món Việt. C̣n có một số nhà hàng với món ăn Triều Châu. Nhiều bác sĩ, nha sĩ, luật sư, kế toán người Việt cũng lập văn pḥng tại đây để phục vụ thân chủ đồng hương.
Little Saigon, đặc biệt là Westminster, thường được xem là trung tâm của ngành truyền thông Việt ngữ tại hải ngoại. Hầu hết các chương tŕnh ca nhạc hải ngoại đều được phát hành tại đây, như Paris by Night, Trung tâm Asia, Trung Tâm Vân Sơn, v.v. V́ thế, vô số ca sĩ, nhạc sĩ nổi tiếng trong nhạc hải ngoại cư ngụ tại khu vực này.Trên radio, có hai đài được phát sóng tiếng Việt 24 giờ mỗi ngày (Little Saigon Radio trên KVNR 1480 AM và Radio Bolsa KALI 106.3 FM). Một đài khác thỉnh thoảng có chương tŕnh tiếng Việt (KXMX-AM 1190). Các chương tŕnh được phát sóng gồm có tin tức, thời sự, âm nhạc, talk show, tôn giáo, đọc truyện, v.v. Chương tŕnh Việt ngữ của đài BBC và RFI được tiếp vận trực tiếp trên những đài này 2 lần mỗi ngày. Trên TV có hai chương tŕnh tin tức và âm nhạc mỗi ngày, và cuối tuần có chương tŕnh dài hơn. Đài Saigon Broadcasting Television Network SBTN được phát qua vệ tinh và có thể xem được trên toàn quốc.Tại đây có hàng chục tờ báo tiếng Việt được bán bên cạnh các báo tiếng Anh, lớn nhất trong đó là Báo Người Việt. Những nhật báo lớn khác gồm có Việt Báo, Viễn Đông, v.v. Nhiều tuần báo, nguyệt san và báo nhằm vào giới trẻ cũng được phát hành như Việt Tide (song ngữ) và Người Việt 2 (bằng tiếng Anh).
Người Mỹ gốc Việt, dựa vào số đông, đă và đang nắm giữ quyền lực chính trị đáng kể tại hai thành phố Westminster và Garden Grove. Nhiều người tham gia vào các hoạt động chính trị tại địa phương và được bầu vào các chức vụ công. Như Janet Nguyễn từ năm 2007 trở thành người Mỹ gốc Việt đầu tiên lên làm giám sát viên quận trên toàn quốc. Ông Trần Thái Văn đắc cử dân biểu tiểu bang California từ năm 2004 và trở thanh người Mỹ gốc Việt đầu tiên được bầu vào ngành lập pháp tiểu bang.
Sinh hoạt cộng đồng
Năm 2003, Tượng Đài Chiến Sĩ Việt Mỹ (Vietnam War Memorial) đă được xây dựng tại Westminster để vinh danh các chiến sĩ Việt Nam Cộng Ḥa và Hoa Kỳ đă hy sinh trong cuộc Chiến Tranh Việt Nam hồi thế kỷ trước.Trường Bolsa Grande High School tại Garden Grove là địa điểm tổ chức Hội Tết Việt Nam hằng năm, với hàng trăm ngàn người tham dự, và do Tổng hội sinh viên Việt Nam Nam Cali UVSA tổ chức. Hàng năm, từ năm 1997, vào ngày Tết Nguyên Đán, Little Saigon tại San Jose cũng có cuộc diễn hành tết hoành tráng do Hội Diễn Hành Tết (Vietnamese Spring Festival VSF) tổ chức, với sự kết hợp của nhiều hội đoàn, tổ chức. Từ năm 2003, Đại hội Điện ảnh Việt Nam Quốc tế (Vietnamese International Film Festival hay ViFF) là một đại hội điện ảnh diễn ra hai năm một lần tại Đại học California tại Irvine và nhiều địa điểm quanh vùng Little Saigon của Quận Cam, California, Mỹ.
Tại San Jose
Tại San Francisco
Chính quyền địa phương đă chính thức đặt tên "Little Saigon" cho khu tập trung nhiều cơ sở thương mại Việt Nam ở trung tâm thành phố Houston vào ngày 2 tháng 5 năm 2004. Khu vục này là khu Midtown, nằm cạnh khu Downtown giữa thành phố. Một nơi khác có nhiều cơ sở thương mại của người Việt là khu vực mới phát triển quanh Đại lộ Bellaire ở Tây Nam thành phố.
VIETNAMESE POPULATION IN U.S. METROPOLITAN AREAS
U.S. CENSUS 2000 (1990 Figures in Parentheses)
Little Saigon -Viet Nam Towns in Canada
Vietnamese began arriving in Canada in the mid 1970s and early 1980s as refugees or boat people following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, though a couple thousands were already living in Quebec before then. Most new arrivees were sponsored by groups of individuals and churches and settled in areas around Southern Ontario, Montreal, Quebec, and Vancouver, British Columbia. Between 1975 to 1985, 110,000 settled in Canada (23,000 in Ontario; 13,000 in Quebec; 8,000 in Alberta; 7,000 British Columbia; 5,000 in Manitoba; 3,000 in Saskatchewan; and 2,000 in the Maritime provinces). As time progressed, most eventually settled in urban centres like Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Edmonton, Hamilton and Calgary.
Vietnam Town in Toronto, ON Little Saigon
In Toronto, the Vietnamese immigrants have settled in the city's Chinatown area near Spadina Avenue and Dundas Street West or to the west in Mississauga.
Old Chinatown Little Saigon
Toronto has the one of the largest Chinatowns in North America. It is centred around the intersection of Dundas Street West and Spadina Avenue, and extends outward from this point along both streets. It has grown significantly over the years and has come to reflect a diverse set of Asian cultures through its shops and restaurants, including Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thai.
Ottawa's "Chinatown" is actually named the Asian Village and it is located in the Centretown area, on Somerset Street West near Bronson Avenue. It is a community mixes with ethnic markets, shops, services and especially an assortment of ethnic Chinese and ethnic Vietnamese eateries.
An informal but sizable Chinatown is found in Windsor, Ontario, in close proximity to the Ambassador Bridge on Wyandotte Street West, between Ranking Avenue and Partingten Avenue, within walking distance from the University of Windsor. This street has several businesses, ranging from Chinese groceries, restaurants, bakeries, among others - mostly established by the Vietnamese Chinese migrants. This Chinatown is also frequented by people from Michigan and Ohio since Metro Detroit lacks a formal "Chinatown", although there is a growing Chinese retail strip in the Detroit suburb of Madison Heights, Michigan, also filled with various businesses owned by Vietnamese Chinese.
Montreal's small, but well-frequented Chinatown is on rue De La Gauchetière and around rue Saint-Urbain and boulevard Saint-Laurent, between boulevard René-Lévesque and rue Viger (Place-d'Armes metro station), just a stone's throw away from the touristy Old Montreal (Vieux-Montreal). It was originally formed in the 1890s and has been the centrepiece for Chinese residing in the Montreal area.
Chinese businesses in Quebec enjoy one of the only exceptions to that province's notorious language laws. When l'office de la langue francaise ordered restaurants and other businesses to replace their Chinese signs with signs where the French text is at least twice as large as Chinese, and without any English, Chinese businessmen protested that this was unlucky and bad for business. They were granted exemptions from the province's strict sign laws on cultural grounds.
In Montreal (mainly in downtown and south shore) there are about 40,000 Vietnamese Canadian population among highest median income and education of Vietnamese Canadians in major cities. There are more than 100 Vietnamese restaurants, hundreds of small size manufacturers of different products from clothing to technology, about 80 pharmacies and hundreds of doctors, dentists, over a thousand scientists, engineers and technicians, about sixty convenient stores and groceries.
Vietnamese immigrants settled mainly in the eastern sections of Vancouver. In Vancouver, hardworking Vietnamese Canadians managed to open a variety of stores and restaurants throughout Vancouver, especially on the east side of the city around Kingsway and Fraser. The area is home to several Vietnamese clothing, food stores, and shops.